What Are the Challenges for UK Businesses Exporting to the EU Post-Brexit?

March 7, 2024

Four years on from the historical decision of the UK to leave the European Union, businesses are still grappling with the new reality of trade in a post-Brexit world. This seismic shift has left UK firms who export goods and services to the EU facing an array of unprecedented challenges. So, what exactly are these challenges and how are UK businesses navigating them?

Understanding the New Trading Landscape

With the cessation of the UK’s EU membership, a new trading landscape has been ushered in. This has undeniably presented UK firms with a steep learning curve as they grapple with unfamiliar rules, regulations, and standards.

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Previously, the UK enjoyed seamless trading with EU countries, with no tariffs, quotas, or customs checks. Now, businesses face additional costs and bureaucracy, including customs declarations, product testing, and proof of origin requirements. It’s not just the added expenses that are a concern; the increased administrative workload can also be a considerable burden for businesses.

In particular, small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) may struggle to navigate the complex customs procedures and paperwork. SMEs often lack the resources of their larger counterparts and can find it difficult to absorb these additional costs and administrative burdens. They are also more vulnerable to any delays in the customs process, as they typically operate with tighter margins and less financial resilience.

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For all businesses, the shift to a new set of trading rules has required a significant investment of time and resources. This includes understanding and adapting to the new regulations, training staff, and potentially restructuring supply chains.

Adapting to Regulatory Divergence

With Brexit, the UK is no longer bound by EU legislation and standards, leading to the prospect of regulatory divergence. This means that UK businesses exporting to the EU must comply with two sets of regulations: those of the UK and those of the EU.

Regulatory divergence can be a significant challenge for businesses, particularly those in sectors with stringent regulations such as food, pharmaceuticals, and chemicals. They must now ensure that their products meet both UK and EU standards, which can be a complex and costly process.

Additionally, there is uncertainty about how UK and EU regulations may diverge in the future. This unpredictability makes it difficult for businesses to plan for the long term and could discourage investment.

Navigating Changes in Supply Chains

Supply chains have been severely disrupted by Brexit. The imposition of trade barriers such as tariffs and customs checks has led to delays and increased costs. This has had a knock-on effect on just-in-time supply chains, which rely on the timely delivery of components.

For many businesses, these disruptions have prompted a reassessment of their supply chains. Some are seeking to source more components locally, while others are looking to diversify their supply chains to reduce reliance on EU suppliers. This transition can be a complex process, involving a significant investment of time and resources.

Furthermore, the changes to immigration rules have affected businesses that rely on EU labour. With the end of freedom of movement between the UK and the EU, firms may struggle to recruit and retain the skilled workers they need.

Managing Currency Fluctuations

Currency fluctuations have always been a challenge for businesses involved in international trade. However, Brexit has brought with it heightened levels of economic uncertainty, leading to greater volatility in the currency markets.

The value of the pound has fluctuated widely since the Brexit referendum, affecting the competitiveness of UK exports. A weaker pound makes UK goods cheaper for foreign buyers, potentially boosting exports. However, it also increases the cost of imported components, squeezing profit margins.

Businesses must therefore closely monitor exchange rates and consider hedging strategies to protect themselves from adverse currency movements. However, this can be a complex and costly process, particularly for SMEs.

Overcoming Market Access Barriers

Finally, Brexit has created new barriers to market access. UK businesses no longer have automatic access to the EU’s single market, meaning they may face additional costs and bureaucracy when exporting to the EU.

For service industries, the end of passporting rights is a significant hurdle. This means UK firms no longer have the right to provide services across the EU without the need for further regulatory authorisation. This has particularly affected the financial services sector, a key area of the UK economy.

Furthermore, the lack of mutual recognition of professional qualifications between the UK and the EU could pose a barrier to businesses providing services in the EU. This means that professionals such as architects, engineers, and lawyers may have to meet additional requirements to practise in the EU.

Navigating these challenges requires a strategic approach, including understanding the new regulations, adapting business models, and seeking new opportunities outside the EU. The road ahead may be rocky, but with the right strategy and adaptability, UK businesses can overcome these challenges and thrive in a post-Brexit world.

Nurturing New Trade Alliances

As UK businesses grapple with the new trading landscape post-Brexit, one potential avenue to mitigate some of the challenges is to nurture new trade alliances. The UK has already begun forging new trade deals outside of the EU. These new partnerships could open up fresh markets for UK businesses, offering potential growth opportunities.

Currently, the UK has signed trade agreements with countries such as Japan, Canada, and Singapore, among others. These agreements cover a wide range of sectors from food and drink to automotive and pharmaceuticals. With these new trade agreements in place, UK businesses can gain easier access to these markets, potentially offsetting some of the losses incurred due to Brexit.

However, it’s important for businesses to conduct thorough research and due diligence when exploring new markets. They need to understand the local market conditions, customer preferences, and regulatory requirements. Additionally, establishing a presence in a new market can be a complex and costly process. Therefore, it’s vital for businesses to have a well-thought-out strategy to ensure a successful market entry.

Many businesses may also need to invest in developing new skills, such as language capabilities, cultural awareness, and understanding local business etiquette. These skills are essential for creating strong business relationships and effectively navigating overseas markets.


Brexit has undeniably presented UK businesses with a series of complex challenges. From understanding new trading rules to navigating regulatory divergence, there’s a steep learning curve for businesses exporting to the EU. Supply chain disruptions, currency fluctuations, and new market access barriers further add to the complexity.

However, these challenges also present opportunities. They force businesses to reassess their strategies, explore new markets, and innovate. By adapting to these changes, businesses can potentially strengthen their resilience and competitiveness.

Nurturing new trade alliances can be an effective strategy to overcome some of the challenges posed by Brexit. While entering new markets comes with its own set of challenges, it also offers potential growth opportunities.

The post-Brexit trading landscape is undoubtedly complex and volatile. Yet, with the right strategy and adaptability, UK businesses can navigate these challenges successfully. The road ahead may be rocky, but the UK’s entrepreneurial spirit and resilience will ensure its businesses continue to thrive in a post-Brexit world.

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